Agriculture is the science of growing plants and animals for food, fuel and other uses. The process of agriculture is defined by the production of food, the market for food and the use of the resulting goods. Agriculture is one of the major sectors of science contributing to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Agriculture all around the world plays an important role in maintaining the sustainable development of the world economy.
Agriculture is broadly divided into three sectors on the basis of its scope: natural agriculture, animal husbandry and small scale. Natural agriculture is the application of scientific knowledge to agriculture and related activities such as fertilization, pest control and agriculture research. Animal husbandry is the application of science in the farming of domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, goats and poultry. Small scale agriculture is agriculture that uses yield from agricultural production for the support of living standards. Agriculture produces food, fuel, fibre, fuel oil and timber and contributes to the economic growth of a country.
Agriculture has various types: arable agriculture which yields staple foods; inland farming that yields cereals, pastures and fruit crops; horticultural agriculture which yield fruit and vegetables; agricultural produce manufacturing; and forestry which include tree Farming. Agriculture has contributed largely to the progress of mankind through various processes. Agriculture forms the raw material for the manufacture of food, fuels and fertilizer. Agriculture has also created employment in major developing countries.
Agriculture plays a key role in providing food, fuel and other resources. Agriculture has been able to develop its own breeds of crops to meet the increasing demands of the consumers. The improved breeds of plants have increased the production of vegetables, fruits and legumes. The improvement of agriculture science seeks to improve the productivity of the farms and at the same time help in controlling the natural vulnerabilities of the crops.
During the early years of agriculture, the primary tools used by farmers were ploughs, cultivating tools such as threshers and tillers and hoes. Today all these tools are replaced by combines that make cultivation less labour-intensive and more productive. Modern technology has enabled farmers to breed healthier and disease-resistant plants to increase their productivity. In addition, farmers can save considerable amount of money on fertilizers and pesticides through better use of this technology.
The development of agriculture has brought about profound changes in its structure and evolution through the years. The development of complex carbohydrates such as corn and rice has led to the domestication of the grass plant. Throughout the Later Paleolithic period, the cultivation of wild grasses and trees allowed the development of crops such as wheat, barley and sorghum. Agriculture developed into a very complex process during the Neolithic era when people started planting seeds of various domesticates and wild crops as well as domestic animals.
Agriculture has had an enormous impact on the lifestyle of humans. In fact, agriculture has become one of the most important areas of research in agriculture today. A lot of crops have been domesticated just to feed human beings. Livestock and crops are the two key components of modern-day agriculture that has helped raise the living standards of people. Agriculture has been one of the most important developments in science; it has enabled people to feed themselves and make products they need.
In terms of seeds, agriculture science has enabled the production of corn, wheat and other common food products. It also has enabled the growth of crops that yield food for direct human consumption. Some of these are cereals and fruits. As for the type of crop, it can be selected according to climatic conditions, soil fertility and other factors. In the end, agriculture science has enabled the development of crops that provide food, fuel and other products.